This is an abridged version of the organization-wide PLOS Editorial and Publishing Policies.
We vigorously investigate allegations of publication misconduct, both before and after publication, and we reserve the right to contact authors' institutions, funders, or regulatory bodies if needed. If we find conclusive evidence of misconduct, we will take steps to correct the scientific record, which may include issuing a correction or retraction.
Authors are expected to be aware of, and comply with, best practice in publication ethics, specifically with regard to authorship, dual submission, plagiarism, figure manipulation, competing interests, and compliance with standards of research ethics.
In cases of suspected or alleged misconduct, we will follow COPE standards and practices and may seek advice from the COPE forum if needed.
Any concerns about the above should be addressed to the editorial office at plosone [at] plos.org.
Plagiarism is not acceptable in PLOS ONE submission. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to:
If a manuscript contains text that is directly copied from another source, this text must be written in quotation marks and the original source must be properly cited. If a study's design or the manuscript's structure or language have been inspired by previous works, these works must be cited.
If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript may be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, we reserve the right to issue a correction or retract the paper, as appropriate. We reserve the right to inform authors' institutions about plagiarism detected either before or after publication.
Image files must not be manipulated or adjusted in any way that could lead to misinterpretation of the information present in the original image. Inappropriate manipulation includes but is not limited to:
If inappropriate image manipulation is identified during the peer review process, we reserve the right to ask for the original data and, if that is not satisfactory, the manuscript may be rejected. If inappropriate image manipulation is identified after publication, we reserve the right to ask for the original data and, if that is not satisfactory, to issue a correction or retract the paper, as appropriate. We reserve the right to inform authors' institutions about inappropriate image manipulation detected either before or after publication.
All individuals involved with a manuscript, including authors, academic editors, reviewers, and commenters must declare all potential competing interests.
PLOS defines a competing interest as anything that interferes with, or could be perceived as interfering with, the complete and objective presentation, peer review, editorial decision-making, or publication of a manuscript. Competing interests can be financial, professional, or personal, and can arise in relation to an organization or an individual. Examples may be found below.
As a guide, any competing interest that arose within the five years either before or after the commencement of the research described, within five years of the article being written, or within five years of events described in the article should be declared. Interests outside this time-frame might also be relevant; if so, they should also be declared so that their relevance can be judged by the journal editorial team.
We may decide not to publish a paper if we believe that the competing interests declared by the authors have compromised the objectivity or validity of the research, analyses, or interpretations in the paper. If we find that authors have competing interests that were not declared upon submission, the manuscript may be rejected. If an undeclared competing interest comes to light after publication, we will issue a formal correction or retract the paper, as appropriate.
Reviewers and editors — academic or professional, paid or unpaid — must not review or handle a paper if they have a potential competing interest. Examples may be found below.
In particular, reviewers and editors must not be involved in the peer review process if:
Authors must not suggest reviewers or editors who will have competing interests.
Examples of financial competing interests include, but are not limited to:
Examples of non-financial competing interests include but are not limited to:
For more information on PLOS policies regarding non-financial competing interests, see this PLOS Medicine editorial.
To qualify for authorship, one should contribute to all of the following:
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed. Each author must have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Those who contributed to the work but do not qualify for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgements.
When a large group or center has conducted the work, the author list should include the individuals whose contributions meet the criteria defined above, as well as the group name.
All authors must approve the final manuscript before submission. PLOS ONE will contact all authors by email at submission to ensure that they are aware of the submission of the manuscript.
Authors must declare any involvement by any professional writer involved in writing a manuscript. They should be included in the author list if they meet the authorship criteria above, or in the acknowledgements if they do not. We encourage authors to consult the European Medical Writers Association (EMWA) guidelines on the role of medical writers (PDF). Please contact the editorial office at plosone [at] plos.org for further clarification if needed.
Authors who believe their manuscripts would benefit from professional editing are encouraged to use professional language or copyediting services prior to submission. These services can be found on the web using search terms like "scientific editing service" or "manuscript editing service."
If any changes to the list of authors of a manuscript are necessary after the initial submission but before publication, the corresponding author must contact the journal staff at plosone [at] plos.org and provide a clear reason for the change. If the change to the authorship list is appropriate and in keeping with the guidelines given above, the corresponding author will be asked to provide written confirmation that all other authors listed on the manuscript at that time consent. We will individually inform anyone who is added or removed from the author list.
PLOS ONE will not consider papers in which any of the research costs or authors' salaries have been funded, in whole or in part, by a tobacco company. For a PLOS Medicine editorial describing the reasoning behind this policy, click here.Back to top
Publication is conditional upon the agreement of the authors to make freely available any materials and information described in their publication that may be reasonably requested by others.
When submitting a manuscript online, authors must provide a Data Availability Statement describing compliance with PLOS's policy. If the article is accepted for publication, the data availability statement will be published as part of the final article.
Additional explanation regarding the Data Policy is available at http://www.plosone.org/static/policies#sharing.
PLOS ONE will not consider a study if the conclusions depend solely on the analysis of proprietary data. If proprietary data were used, and the authors are unable to make these data public, then the paper must include an analysis of public data that validates the conclusions so others can reproduce the analysis.
If restrictions on access to data or materials come to light after publication, PLOS ONE reserves the right to post a correction, contact the authors' institutions and funders, or retract the publication. . Readers should contact plosone [at] plos.org if they experience any difficulty obtaining materials or data from PLOS ONE papers.Back to top
Upon submitting an article, authors are asked to indicate their agreement to abide by an open access Creative Commons license (CC-BY). Under the terms of this license, authors retain ownership of the copyright of their articles. However, the license permits any user to download, print out, extract, reuse, archive, and distribute the article, so long as appropriate credit is given to the authors and the source of the work. The license ensures that the article will be available as widely as possible and that the article can be included in any scientific archive.
Papers authored by one or more US government employees are licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0), which allows unlimited distribution and reuse of the article for any lawful purpose.
Submitted manuscripts should not contain any images or figures that have already been published. This can cause serious copyright concerns. If authors must include previously published figures or images, please obtain express written permission from the copyright holder to publish under the CC-BY license.
Authors must also take special care when submitting manuscripts that contain potentially identifying images of people. Identifying information should not be included in the manuscript unless the information is crucial and the individual has provided written consent by completing the Consent Form for Publication in a PLOS Journal (PDF).
Further information about policies regarding figures can be found in the Figure Guidelines.Back to top
To provide open access, PLOS journals use a business model in which our expenses—including those of peer review, journal production, and online hosting and archiving—are recovered in part by charging a publication fee to the authors or research sponsors for each article they publish. The fees vary by journal.
PLOS is committed to the widest possible global participation in open access publishing. To determine the appropriate fee, we use a country-based pricing model, which is based on the country that provides 50% or more of the primary funding for the research that is being submitted. Research articles funded by Upper Middle and High Income Countries incur our standard publication fees. Corresponding authors who are affiliated with one of our Institutional Members are eligible for a discount on this fee. Such authors will be informed of the discount applicable after submission of their manuscript.
Fees for Low and Lower Middle Income Countries are calculated according to the PLOS Global Participation Initiative pricing program for manuscripts submitted after 9am Pacific Time on September 4, 2012 (this program is not retroactive).
Our fee waiver policy, whereby PLOS offers to waive or further reduce the payment required of authors who cannot pay the full amount charged for publication, remains in effect. Editors and reviewers have no access to whether authors are able to pay; decisions to publish are only based on editorial criteria.Back to top
All manuscripts submitted to PLOS ONE are subject to rigorous review. This review consists of the following steps:
Authors may submit a formal appeal for rejected submissions. Appeal requests must be made in writing to plosone [at] plos.org with the word "appeal" in the subject line. Authors must provide detailed reasons for the appeal and point-by-point responses to the reviewers' and/or Academic Editor's comments. Decisions on appeals are final without exception. Priority is given to new submissions, so the appeal process may take longer than the original submission process.
For manuscripts disputing previously published work, it is PLOS ONE policy to invite input from the disputed author during the peer review process. This procedure is aimed at ensuring a thorough, transparent, and productive review process.
If the disputed author chooses to submit a review, it must be returned in a timely fashion and contain a full declaration of all competing interests. The Academic Editor will consider any such reviews in light of the competing interest.
Authors submitting manuscripts disputing previous work should explain the relationship between the manuscripts in their cover letter, and will be required to confirm that they accept the conditions of this review policy before the manuscript is considered further.
Upon submission, authors must confirm that the manuscript, or any related manuscript, is not currently under consideration or accepted elsewhere. If related work has been submitted to PLOS ONE or elsewhere, authors must include a copy with the submitted article. Reviewers will be asked to comment on the overlap between related submissions.
We strongly discourage the unnecessary division of related work into separate manuscripts, and we will not consider manuscripts that are divided into "parts." Each submission to PLOS ONE must be written as an independent unit and should not rely on any work that has not already been accepted for publication. If related manuscripts are submitted to PLOS ONE, the authors may be advised to combine them into a single manuscript at the editor's discretion.Back to top
All research involving human participants must have been approved by the authors' Institutional Review Board (IRB) or by equivalent ethics committee(s), and must have been conducted according to the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. Authors should be able to submit, upon request, a statement from the IRB or ethics committee indicating approval of the research. We reserve the right to reject work that we believe has not been conducted to a high ethical standard, even when formal approval has been obtained.
Subjects must have been properly instructed and have indicated that they consent to participate by signing the appropriate informed consent paperwork. Authors may be asked to submit a blank, sample copy of a subject consent form. If consent was verbal instead of written, or if consent could not be obtained, the authors must explain the reason in the manuscript, and the use of verbal consent or the lack of consent must have been approved by the IRB or ethics committee.
All efforts should be made to protect patient privacy and anonymity. Identifying information, including photos, should not be included in the manuscript unless the information is crucial and the individual has provided written consent by completing the Consent Form for Publication in a PLOS Journal (PDF). More information about patient privacy, anonymity, and informed consent can be found in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Privacy and Confidentiality guidelines.
Manuscripts should conform to the following reporting guidelines:
See the PLOS ONE Manuscript Guidelines for detailed instructions for submitting manuscripts describing human subject research.Back to top
PLOS ONE follows the World Health Organization's (WHO) definition of a clinical trial:
...any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes...Interventions include but are not restricted to drugs, cells and other biological products, surgical procedures, radiologic procedures, devices, behavioural treatments, process-of-care changes, preventive care, etc.
Clinical trials are subject to all policies regarding human research.
In addition, clinical trials must be registered according to the following guidelines, as supported by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Obligation to Register Clinical Trials:
Trials must be registered in one of the registries approved by the ICMJE or WHO. Prior disclosure of results on a clinical trial registry site will not affect consideration for publication in PLOS ONE.
We reserve the right to inform authors' institutions or ethics committees if we become aware of unregistered trials.
Clinical trials must be reported according to the following reporting guidelines:
Submissions of all clinical trials must also include the study protocol, which will be published with the manuscript if accepted.
Find detailed instructions for submitting reports on clinical trials in the PLOS ONE Manuscript Guidelines.Back to top
We work in consultation with the PLOS ONE Animal Research Advisory Group to develop policies. Animal Research Advisory Group members may also be consulted on individual submissions.
All research involving vertebrates or cephalopods must have approval from the authors' Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) or equivalent ethics committee(s), and must have been conducted according to applicable national and international guidelines. Approval must be received prior to beginning research. If we note differences between an IACUC-approved protocol and the methods reported in a submitted manuscript, we may report these discrepancies to the relevant institution or committee.
Where unregulated animals are used or ethics approval is not required, authors should make this clear in submitted articles and explain why ethical approval was not required. Relevant regulations that grant exemptions should be cited in full. It is the authors' responsibility to understand and comply with all relevant regulations.
We reserve the right to reject work that the editors believe has not been conducted to a high ethical standard, even if authors have obtained formal approval or approval is not required under local regulations.
Manuscripts describing studies that use death as an endpoint will be subject to additional ethical considerations, and may be rejected if they lack appropriate justification for the study or consideration of humane endpoints.
We ask authors to follow the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) guidelines for all submissions describing laboratory-based animal research and to upload a completed ARRIVE Guidelines Checklist to be published as supporting information. Please note that inclusion of a completed ARRIVE Checklist will be a formal requirement for publication at a later date.
Manuscripts describing research involving non-human primates must include details of animal welfare, including information about housing, feeding, and environmental enrichment, and steps taken to minimize suffering, including use of anesthesia and method of sacrifice if appropriate, in accordance with the recommendations of the Weatherall report, The use of non-human primates in research (PDF).Back to top
Find detailed instructions for submitting reports describing paleontology and archaeology research in the Manuscript Guidelines.Back to top
PLOS ONE will consider submissions that present new methods, software, or databases as the primary focus of the manuscript if they meet the following criteria:
"Dual use research of concern" is defined by the NSABB (National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity) as any "biological research with legitimate scientific purpose that may be misused to pose a biologic threat to public health and/or national security." PLOS ONE is committed to the widespread dissemination of research while being sensitive to the issues of responsible publication standards. We expect that the potential risks of publishing a scientific paper will outweigh the benefits in only the rarest circumstances. On occasion, PLOS ONE reserves the right to consider manuscript submissions within this context. In addition to the usual scientific scrutiny, such submissions may also be referred to an internal PLOS Dual Use Committee for further deliberation. Authors submitting to PLOS ONE are obligated to disclose potential bioethics/dual use concerns to the journal office at the time of initial submission.Back to top