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Research Article

Micro-Biomechanics of the Kebara 2 Hyoid and Its Implications for Speech in Neanderthals

  • Ruggero D’Anastasio,

    Affiliation: University Museum – State University “G. d’Annunzio”, Piazza Trento e Trieste 1, Chieti, Italy

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  • Stephen Wroe mail,

    swroe@une.edu.au

    Affiliation: Computational Biomechanics Research Group, Zoology, School of Environmental and Rural Sciences, University of New England, New South Wales, Australia

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  • Claudio Tuniz,

    Affiliations: Multidisciplinary Laboratory, The “Abdus Salam” International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste, Italy, Centre for Archaeological Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia

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  • Lucia Mancini,

    Affiliation: Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

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  • Deneb T. Cesana,

    Affiliation: University Museum – State University “G. d’Annunzio”, Piazza Trento e Trieste 1, Chieti, Italy

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  • Diego Dreossi,

    Affiliation: Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

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  • Mayoorendra Ravichandiran,

    Affiliation: Division of Anatomy, University of Toronto, Department of Surgery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Marie Attard,

    Affiliation: Computational Biomechanics Research Group, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia

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  • William C. H. Parr,

    Affiliation: Computational Biomechanics Research Group, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia

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  • Anne Agur,

    Affiliation: Division of Anatomy, University of Toronto, Department of Surgery, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Luigi Capasso

    Affiliation: University Museum – State University “G. d’Annunzio”, Piazza Trento e Trieste 1, Chieti, Italy

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  • Published: December 18, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082261

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