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Research Article

Four Common Pesticides, Their Mixtures and a Formulation Solvent in the Hive Environment Have High Oral Toxicity to Honey Bee Larvae

  • Wanyi Zhu mail,

    wanyizhupsu@gmail.com

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Center for Pollinator Research, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Daniel R. Schmehl,

    Affiliation: Honey Bee Research and Extension Laboratory, Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Christopher A. Mullin,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Center for Pollinator Research, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • James L. Frazier

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Center for Pollinator Research, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: January 08, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077547

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