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Research Article

Pairwise Measures of Causal Direction in the Epidemiology of Sleep Problems and Depression

  • Tom Rosenström mail,

    tom.rosenstrom@helsinki.fi

    Affiliation: IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Markus Jokela,

    Affiliation: IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Sampsa Puttonen,

    Affiliations: Centre of Expertise for Human Factors at Work, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland, IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Mirka Hintsanen,

    Affiliations: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Laura Pulkki-Råback,

    Affiliation: IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Jorma S. Viikari,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland

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  • Olli T. Raitakari,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital and Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

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  • Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

    Affiliation: IBS, Unit of Personality, Work and Health Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Published: November 30, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050841

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