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Research Article

Psychological Distress, Depression, Anxiety, and Burnout among International Humanitarian Aid Workers: A Longitudinal Study

  • Barbara Lopes Cardozo mail,

    bhc8@cdc.gov

    Affiliation: Center for Global Health, International Emergency and Refugee Health Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Carol Gotway Crawford,

    Affiliation: Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Cynthia Eriksson,

    Affiliation: Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California, United States of America

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  • Julia Zhu,

    Affiliation: Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Miriam Sabin,

    Affiliation: Center for Global Health, International Emergency and Refugee Health Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    Current address: UNAIDS, Geneva, Switzerland

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  • Alastair Ager,

    Affiliation: Antares Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Current address: Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • David Foy,

    Affiliation: Pepperdine University, Malibu, California, United States of America

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  • Leslie Snider,

    Affiliation: Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America

    Current address: War Trauma, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Willem Scholte,

    Affiliation: Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Current address: Equator Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Reinhard Kaiser,

    Affiliation: Center for Global Health, International Emergency and Refugee Health Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    Current address: Division for Global HIV/AIDS, Center for Global Health, CDC, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • Miranda Olff,

    Affiliation: Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Bas Rijnen,

    Affiliation: Antares Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Winnifred Simon

    Affiliation: Antares Foundation, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Published: September 12, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044948

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