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Research Article

Tobacco Smoke Mediated Induction of Sinonasal Microbial Biofilms

  • Natalia Goldstein-Daruech,

    Affiliations: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, PhD Program Medical Science, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencia, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile

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  • Emily K. Cope,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Ke-Qing Zhao,

    Affiliations: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Eye & ENT Hospital, School of Shanghai Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

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  • Katarina Vukovic,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhonolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia

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  • Jennifer M. Kofonow,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Laurel Doghramji,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Bernardo González,

    Affiliation: Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencia, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile

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  • Alexander G. Chiu,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • David W. Kennedy,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • James N. Palmer,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jeffery G. Leid,

    Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, United States of America

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  • James L. Kreindler,

    Affiliation: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Noam A. Cohen mail

    cohenn@uphs.upenn.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Surgical Services, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: January 06, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015700

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