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Research Article

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Subtype H5N1 in Africa: A Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Isolates

  • Giovanni Cattoli mail,

    gcattoli@izsvenezie.it

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Isabella Monne,

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Alice Fusaro,

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Tony M. Joannis,

    Affiliation: National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

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  • Lami H. Lombin,

    Affiliation: National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria

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  • Mona M. Aly,

    Affiliation: National Laboratory for quality control on poultry production, Dokki (Cairo), Egypt

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  • Abdel S. Arafa,

    Affiliation: National Laboratory for quality control on poultry production, Dokki (Cairo), Egypt

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  • Katharine M. Sturm-Ramirez,

    Affiliation: Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Central de Pathologie Animale, Bingerville, Ivory Coast

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  • Joseph A. Awuni,

    Affiliation: Accra Veterinary Laboratory, Accra, Ghana

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  • Komla B. Batawui,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Central Vétérinaire, Lomé, Togo

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  • Kodzo A. Awoume,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire Central Vétérinaire, Lomé, Togo

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  • Gilbert L. Aplogan,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire de Diagnostic Vétérinaire et de Sérosurveillance, Parakou, Bénin

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  • Adama Sow,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire National d'Elevage, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

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  • Andrè C. Ngangnou,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire National Vétérinaire, Garoua, Cameroon

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  • Iman M. El Nasri Hamza,

    Affiliation: Central Veterinary Research Laboratories, Khartoum, Sudan

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  • Djibo Gamatié,

    Affiliation: Direction des Laboratoires Vétérinaires, Niamey, Niger

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  • Gwenaelle Dauphin,

    Affiliation: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, AGAH Division, Rome, Italy

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  • Joseph M. Domenech,

    Affiliation: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, AGAH Division, Rome, Italy

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  • Ilaria Capua

    Affiliation: OIE/FAO Reference Laboratory for avian influenza and Newcastle disease, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sper.le delle Venezie, Legnaro (PD), Italy

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  • Published: March 17, 2009
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004842

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