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Research Article

HIV-1 Activates Macrophages Independent of Toll-Like Receptors

  • Joseph N. Brown,

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

    Current address: Pacific Northwest National Laboratories, Richland, Washington, United States of America

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  • James J. Kohler,

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Pathology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Carter R. Coberley,

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

    Current address: Consortium Health Plan, Columbia, Maryland, United States of America

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  • John W. Sleasman,

    Affiliation: Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of South Florida College of Medicine and All Children's Hospital, St. Petersburg, Florida, United States of America

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  • Maureen M. Goodenow mail

    goodenow@pathology.ufl.edu

    Affiliation: Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, and Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Published: December 02, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003664

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