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Research Article

Climate Warming, Marine Protected Areas and the Ocean-Scale Integrity of Coral Reef Ecosystems

  • Nicholas A. J. Graham mail,

    n.a.j.graham@ncl.ac.uk

    Affiliation: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Tim R. McClanahan,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Conservation Society, Marine Programs, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • M. Aaron MacNeil,

    Affiliations: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, National Research Council, NOAA Panama City Laboratory, Panama City Beach, Florida United States of America

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  • Shaun K. Wilson,

    Affiliations: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom, ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

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  • Nicholas V. C. Polunin,

    Affiliation: School of Marine Science & Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Simon Jennings,

    Affiliations: Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Lowestoft, United Kingdom, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

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  • Pascale Chabanet,

    Affiliations: Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Nouméa, New Caledonia, Laboratoire d'Ecologie marine (ECOMAR), Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France

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  • Susan Clark,

    Affiliation: Natural England, Bridgewater House, Whitworth Street, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Mark D. Spalding,

    Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy, Newmarket, United Kingdom

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  • Yves Letourneur,

    Affiliation: Université de la Méditerranée, Centre d'Océanologie de Marseille, UMR CNRS 6540 DIMAR, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, Marseille, France

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  • Lionel Bigot,

    Affiliation: Laboratoire d'Ecologie marine (ECOMAR), Université de La Réunion, Saint-Denis, La Réunion, France

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  • René Galzin,

    Affiliation: UMR 5244 CNRS-EPHE-UPVD, Ecosystèmes Coralliens, Université de Perpignan, Perpignan, France

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  • Marcus C. Öhman,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Kajsa C. Garpe,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Alasdair J. Edwards,

    Affiliation: School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Charles R. C. Sheppard

    Affiliation: University of Warwick, Department of Biological Sciences, Coventry, United Kingdom

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  • Published: August 27, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003039

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