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Research Article

Devastating Decline of Forest Elephants in Central Africa

  • Fiona Maisels equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Fiona Maisels, Samantha Strindberg

    fmaisels@wcs.org

    Affiliations: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom

    X
  • Samantha Strindberg equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Fiona Maisels, Samantha Strindberg

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Stephen Blake,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Vogelwarte Radolfzell, Radolfzell, Germany

    X
  • George Wittemyer,

    Affiliations: Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, United States of America, Save The Elephants, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya

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  • John Hart,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Gombe, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    X
  • Elizabeth A. Williamson,

    Affiliation: School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom

    X
  • Rostand Aba’a,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Agence Nationale des parcs Nationaux, Libreville, Gabon

    X
  • Gaspard Abitsi,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Ruffin D. Ambahe,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Fidèl Amsini,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Frankfurt Zoological Society, Frankfurt, Germany

    X
  • Parfait C. Bakabana,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: International Union for Conservation of Nature, Kabo, Republic of Congo

    X
  • Thurston Cleveland Hicks,

    Affiliation: The Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    Current address: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Rosine E. Bayogo,

    Affiliation: Ministère des Eaux, Forêts, Chasse et Pêche, Bangui, Central African Republic

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  • Martha Bechem,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: MIKE Subregional Office, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    X
  • Rene L. Beyers,

    Affiliation: Beatty Biodiversity Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • Anicet N. Bezangoye,

    Affiliation: Direction de la Gestion de la Faune et de la Chasse, Ministère des Eaux et Forêts, Libreville, Gabon

    X
  • Patrick Boundja,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Nicolas Bout,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: The Aspinall Foundation, Franceville, Gabon

    X
  • Marc Ella Akou,

    Affiliation: Direction de la Gestion de la Faune et de la Chasse, Ministère des Eaux et Forêts, Libreville, Gabon

    Current address: Central Africa Regional Programme Office, World Wildlife Fund, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    X
  • Lambert Bene Bene ,

    Affiliation: Central Africa Regional Programme Office, World Wildlife Fund, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Deceased.

    X
  • Bernard Fosso,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Elizabeth Greengrass,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire, United Kingdom

    X
  • Falk Grossmann,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Clement Ikamba-Nkulu,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Omari Ilambu,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Central Africa Regional Programme Office, World Wildlife Fund, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    X
  • Bila-Isia Inogwabini,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden

    X
  • Fortune Iyenguet,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Franck Kiminou,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Max Kokangoye ,

    Affiliations: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America, Direction de la Gestion de la Faune et de la Chasse, Ministère des Eaux et Forêts, Libreville, Gabon

    Deceased.

    X
  • Deo Kujirakwinja,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Stephanie Latour,

    Affiliations: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America, The Jane Goodall Institute, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

    Current address: Vaucresson, France

    X
  • Innocent Liengola,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

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  • Quevain Mackaya,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Jacob Madidi,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Societé Générale de Surveillance, Bunia, Oriental Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    X
  • Bola Madzoke,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Calixte Makoumbou,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Mokabi Société anonyme (Rougier Group), Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

    X
  • Guy-Aimé Malanda,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Odzala-Kokoua National Park, African Parks, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

    X
  • Richard Malonga,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Olivier Mbani,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Environment Department, Association Sylvatrop, Conakry, Guinea

    X
  • Valentin A. Mbendzo,

    Affiliations: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America, Central Africa Regional Programme Office, World Wildlife Fund, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Current address: Programme d’Appui à la Conservation des Ecosystèmes du Bassin du Congo, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    X
  • Edgar Ambassa,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Ministry of Forestry and Wildlife, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    X
  • Albert Ekinde,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Yves Mihindou,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Bethan J. Morgan,

    Affiliations: School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, United Kingdom, Central Africa Program, Zoological Society of San Diego, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    X
  • Prosper Motsaba,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Gabin Moukala,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Environment Department, Association Sylvatrop, Conakry, Guinea

    X
  • Anselme Mounguengui,

    Affiliation: Central Africa Regional Programme Office, World Wildlife Fund, Yaoundé, Cameroon

    X
  • Brice S. Mowawa,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Ministère de l’Economie Forestière, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

    X
  • Christian Ndzai,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Stuart Nixon,

    Affiliation: Zoological Society of London, Regents Park, London, United Kingdom

    Current address: Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Pele Nkumu,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Fabian Nzolani,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Lilian Pintea,

    Affiliation: The Jane Goodall Institute, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

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  • Andrew Plumptre,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Hugo Rainey,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Current address: The Biodiversity Consultancy Ltd, Cambridge, United Kingdom

    X
  • Bruno Bokoto de Semboli,

    Affiliation: Ministère des Eaux, Forêts, Chasse et Pêche, Bangui, Central African Republic

    X
  • Adeline Serckx,

    Affiliation: Behavioral Biology Unit, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium

    X
  • Emma Stokes,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Andrea Turkalo,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Hilde Vanleeuwe,

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Ashley Vosper,

    Affiliations: Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Gombe, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, African Wildlife Foundation, Gombe, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Current address: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Ymke Warren

    Affiliation: Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, United States of America

    Deceased.

    X
  • Published: March 04, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059469

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