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Research Article

A Novel Antibody-Based Biomarker for Chronic Algal Toxin Exposure and Sub-Acute Neurotoxicity

  • Kathi A. Lefebvre mail,

    Kathi.Lefebvre@noaa.gov

    Affiliation: Exposure Assessment and Biomedical Models, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Elizabeth R. Frame,

    Affiliation: Exposure Assessment and Biomedical Models, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Frances Gulland,

    Affiliation: The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, United States of America

    X
  • John D. Hansen,

    Affiliation: U. S. Geological Survey-Western Fisheries Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Preston S. Kendrick,

    Affiliation: Exposure Assessment and Biomedical Models, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Richard P. Beyer,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Theo K. Bammler,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Frederico M. Farin,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Emma M. Hiolski,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Donald R. Smith,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

    X
  • David J. Marcinek

    Affiliation: Departments of Radiology and Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

    X
  • Published: May 02, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036213

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