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Research Article

Progression to AIDS in South Africa Is Associated with both Reverting and Compensatory Viral Mutations

  • Kuan-Hsiang Gary Huang equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Kuan-Hsiang Gary Huang, Dominique Goedhals

    Affiliations: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, The James Martin 21st Century School, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Dominique Goedhals equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Kuan-Hsiang Gary Huang, Dominique Goedhals

    Affiliations: University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS), Johannesburg, South Africa

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  • Jonathan M. Carlson,

    Affiliation: eScience Group, Microsoft Research, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Mark A. Brockman,

    Affiliations: Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Swati Mishra,

    Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Zabrina L. Brumme,

    Affiliations: Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Stephen Hickling,

    Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Christopher S. W. Tang,

    Affiliation: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Toshiyuki Miura,

    Affiliations: Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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  • Chris Seebregts,

    Affiliation: Biomedical Informatics Research Division, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa

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  • David Heckerman,

    Affiliation: eScience Group, Microsoft Research, Los Angeles, California, United States of America

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  • Thumbi Ndung'u,

    Affiliation: HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

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  • Bruce Walker,

    Affiliations: HIV Pathogenesis Programme, The Doris Duke Medical Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Infectious Disease, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America, Division of AIDS, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Paul Klenerman,

    Affiliations: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Dewald Steyn,

    Affiliation: University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

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  • Philip Goulder,

    Affiliation: Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Rodney Phillips,

    Affiliations: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, The James Martin 21st Century School, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Bloemfontein-Oxford Collaborative Group,
  • Cloete van Vuuren,

    Affiliation: University of Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

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  • John Frater mail

    john.frater@ndm.ox.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom

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  • Published: April 22, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019018

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