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Research Article

Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant

  • Henry S. Gibbons equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Henry S. Gibbons, Stacey M. Broomall, Lauren A. McNew, Evan W. Skowronski

    henry.gibbons@us.army.mil

    Affiliation: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Stacey M. Broomall equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Henry S. Gibbons, Stacey M. Broomall, Lauren A. McNew, Evan W. Skowronski

    Affiliation: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Lauren A. McNew equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Henry S. Gibbons, Stacey M. Broomall, Lauren A. McNew, Evan W. Skowronski

    Affiliations: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America, Battelle Memorial Institute, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Hajnalka Daligault,

    Affiliation: Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Carol Chapman,

    Affiliation: Naval Medical Research Center, Biological Defense Research Directorate, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • David Bruce,

    Affiliation: Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Mark Karavis,

    Affiliation: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Michael Krepps,

    Affiliations: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America, Excet Inc., Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Paul A. McGregor,

    Affiliations: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America, Science Applications International Corporation, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Charles Hong,

    Affiliations: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Kyong H. Park,

    Affiliation: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Arya Akmal,

    Affiliation: Naval Medical Research Center, Biological Defense Research Directorate, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Andrew Feldman,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Jeffrey S. Lin,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Wenling E. Chang,

    Affiliation: The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Brandon W. Higgs,

    Affiliation: The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia, United States of America

    X
  • Plamen Demirev,

    Affiliation: Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • John Lindquist,

    Affiliation: Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

    X
  • Alvin Liem,

    Affiliations: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America, OptiMetrics Inc, Abingdon, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Ed Fochler,

    Affiliations: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America, OptiMetrics Inc, Abingdon, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Timothy D. Read,

    Affiliation: Naval Medical Research Center, Biological Defense Research Directorate, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

    Current address: Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America

    X
  • Roxanne Tapia,

    Affiliation: Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Shannon Johnson,

    Affiliation: Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Kimberly A. Bishop-Lilly,

    Affiliation: Naval Medical Research Center, Biological Defense Research Directorate, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Chris Detter,

    Affiliation: Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Cliff Han,

    Affiliation: Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America

    X
  • Shanmuga Sozhamannan,

    Affiliation: Naval Medical Research Center, Biological Defense Research Directorate, Silver Spring, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • C. Nicole Rosenzweig,

    Affiliation: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Evan W. Skowronski equal contributor

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Henry S. Gibbons, Stacey M. Broomall, Lauren A. McNew, Evan W. Skowronski

    Affiliation: BioSciences Division, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America

    Current address: Operational Surveyors, Incline Village, Nevada, United States of America

    X
  • Published: March 25, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017836

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