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TypeProp. of crop value embodied in biofuelMost Compact m2/LLeast Compact m2/LNotesDomestic- Corn Ethanol0.762.5
2.9
Least-compact estimate based on 2007 yields, a conversion rate of 2.7 gal/bu (0.29 L/L, or 0.40 L/kg), and the fact that 10% of planted land is not harvested. Most-compact estimate based on yield increases of 2 bu/year (70.4 L/yr or 50.8 kg/yr), starting with 151 bu/acre (1.31 L/m2 or 0.948 kg/m2) in 2007. Coproduct value from Wang [8].Domestic- Cellulosic Ethanol1.000.8
4.6
Least compact estimate based on current switchgrass yields of 3.1 tons/acre (0.70 kg/m2) [9], and current conversion rates of 74.5 gals/ton (0.311 L/kg). Most compact estimate based on optimistic miscanthus yields of 13.8 tons per acre (3.09 kg/m2) [10], and "mature technology" conversion rates of 105.3 gal/ton (0.440 L/kg) [11]. Coproduct value based on current lack of market [12].Domestic- Ethanol from other feedstocks0.981.4
2.1
Assumed sugarcane, used current production values from Brazil (see below). Coproduct value is surplus electricity, value estimated from cane yield in [13], assuming a rack price of ethanol of $1.80/gal ($0.47/L) and a U.S. electricity price of $0.0981/kWhr.International- Imported Ethanol0.971.4
2.1
Least-compact estimate based on current yields from FAO for Brazil, times 5/6 because sugarcane is harvested 5 of 6 years, times current conversion rates [13]. Most-compact estimate based on Projected yield and conversion increases from Macedo et al [13]. Coproduct value is surplus electricity, value estimated from cane yield in [13], assuming a rack price of ethanol of $1.80/gal ($0.47/L) and a Brazilian electricity price of $0.153/kWhr.Domestic- Biodiesel0.4616.0
20.2
Least-compact estimate based on FAO yield data and conversion value from Gibbs et al. [14]. Most-compact estimate assumes that 0.5 bushel per acre per year (43 L/ha/yr) increase in soy production will continue. Coproduct value based on Huo et al. [15].International- Imported Biodiesel0.4616.0
20.2
Assumed same as domestic biodiesel.Domestic- Liquids from Biomass0.831.0
1.4
From 80.1 gals/dry ton (0.335 L/kg) and 110.9 gal/ton (0.463 L /kg) in NREL report [16] and 22 Mg/ha value of Heaton et al. [10]. Coproduct value inferred from alcohol price and yield relative to ethanol price and yield in Phillips et al. [16].For each type of biofuel and its feedstocks, we show the proportion of the economic value of the crop that is used for biofuel production rather than other co-products, as well as most-compact and least-compact estimates of the area requirements of new energy generation, m2 of crop divided per liter. For all biofuels, the type of impact is defined as the area of new crop required as biofuel feedstock.
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