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Research Article

The Evolution and Origin of Animal Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway Revealed by Network-Level Molecular Evolutionary Analyses

  • Xiaojun Song equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaojun Song, Ping Jin

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Ping Jin equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaojun Song, Ping Jin

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Sheng Qin,

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Liming Chen,

    Affiliation: The Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, Institute of Life Science, Southeast University, Nanjing, Republic of China

    X
  • Fei Ma mail

    mafei01@tsinghua.org.cn

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Published: December 07, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051657

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