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Research Article

Increased Microglia/Macrophage Gene Expression in a Subset of Adult and Pediatric Astrocytomas

  • Jane R. Engler,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Aaron E. Robinson,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Ivan Smirnov,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • J. Graeme Hodgson,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Division of Oncology, Pfizer, La Jolla, California, United states of America

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  • Mitchel S. Berger,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Nalin Gupta,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • C. David James,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Annette Molinaro,

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Joanna J. Phillips mail

    joanna.phillips@ucsf.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Department of Pathology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Brain Tumor Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America

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  • Published: August 22, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043339

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