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Research Article

Streptococcus pneumoniae in Biofilms Are Unable to Cause Invasive Disease Due to Altered Virulence Determinant Production

  • Carlos J. Sanchez,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

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  • Nikhil Kumar,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Anel Lizcano,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

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  • Pooja Shivshankar,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

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  • Julie C. Dunning Hotopp,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • James H. Jorgensen,

    Affiliations: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America, Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

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  • Hervé Tettelin,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Carlos J. Orihuela mail

    orihuela@uthscsa.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America

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  • Published: December 08, 2011
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028738

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