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Research Article

Iridovirus and Microsporidian Linked to Honey Bee Colony Decline

  • Jerry J. Bromenshenk mail,

    beeresearch@aol.com

    Affiliations: Division of Biological Sciences, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States of America, Bee Alert Technology, Inc., Missoula, Montana, United States of America

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  • Colin B. Henderson,

    Affiliations: College of Technology, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States of America, Bee Alert Technology, Inc., Missoula, Montana, United States of America

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  • Charles H. Wick,

    Affiliation: US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Michael F. Stanford,

    Affiliation: US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Alan W. Zulich,

    Affiliation: US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Rabih E. Jabbour,

    Affiliation: Science Applications International Corporation, Abingdon, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Samir V. Deshpande,

    Affiliations: Science Technology Corporation, Edgewood, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Patrick E. McCubbin,

    Affiliation: OptiMetrics, Inc., Abingdon, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Robert A. Seccomb,

    Affiliation: Bee Alert Technology, Inc., Missoula, Montana, United States of America

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  • Phillip M. Welch,

    Affiliation: Bee Alert Technology, Inc., Missoula, Montana, United States of America

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  • Trevor Williams,

    Affiliation: Instituto de Ecologia AC, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico

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  • David R. Firth,

    Affiliation: Department of Information Systems and Technology, The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, United States of America

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  • Evan Skowronski,

    Affiliation: US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Margaret M. Lehmann,

    Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Shan L. Bilimoria,

    Affiliations: Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America, Center for Biotechnology and Genomics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, United States of America

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  • Joanna Gress,

    Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Kevin W. Wanner,

    Affiliation: Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Robert A. Cramer Jr

    Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Molecular Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America

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  • Published: October 06, 2010
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013181

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