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Research Article

Baselines and Degradation of Coral Reefs in the Northern Line Islands

  • Stuart A. Sandin,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Jennifer E. Smith,

    Affiliation: National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America

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  • Edward E. DeMartini,

    Affiliation: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

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  • Elizabeth A. Dinsdale,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Simon D. Donner,

    Affiliation: Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America

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  • Alan M. Friedlander,

    Affiliation: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science-Biogeography Team and The Oceanic Institute, Waimanalo, Hawaii, United States of America

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  • Talina Konotchick,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Machel Malay,

    Affiliation: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • James E. Maragos,

    Affiliation: Pacific/Remote Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

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  • David Obura,

    Affiliation: CORDIO East Africa, Mombasa, Kenya

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  • Olga Pantos,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Gustav Paulay,

    Affiliation: Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Morgan Richie,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Forest Rohwer,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, United States of America

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  • Robert E. Schroeder,

    Affiliation: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research and Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Coral Reef Ecosystem Division, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America

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  • Sheila Walsh,

    Affiliation: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America

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  • Jeremy B. C. Jackson,

    Affiliations: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama

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  • Nancy Knowlton,

    Affiliations: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Republic of Panama

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  • Enric Sala mail

    *E-mail: esala@ucsd.edu

    Affiliations: Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, United States of America, Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Blanes, Spain

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  • Published: February 27, 2008
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001548
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

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