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Research Article

The Evolution and Origin of Animal Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway Revealed by Network-Level Molecular Evolutionary Analyses

  • Xiaojun Song equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaojun Song, Ping Jin

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Ping Jin equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Xiaojun Song, Ping Jin

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Sheng Qin,

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Liming Chen,

    Affiliation: The Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, Institute of Life Science, Southeast University, Nanjing, Republic of China

    X
  • Fei Ma mail

    mafei01@tsinghua.org.cn

    Affiliation: Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China

    X
  • Published: December 07, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051657

About the Authors

Xiaojun Song, Ping Jin, Sheng Qin, Fei Ma
Laboratory for Comparative Genomics and Bioinformatics & Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
Liming Chen
The Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, Institute of Life Science, Southeast University, Nanjing, Republic of China

Corresponding Author

Email: mafei01@tsinghua.org.cn

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FM XS. Performed the experiments: XS PJ. Analyzed the data: XS PJ. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SQ LC. Wrote the paper: XS FM. Carried out the calculations: XS. Performed statistical analyses: XS PJ. Collected data: SQ. Participated in the analysis: LC FM. Revised the manuscript: LC FM.