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Research Article

Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration

  • Emanuela Dalla Costa mail,

    emanuela.dallacosta@unimi.it

    Affiliation: Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie e Sanità Pubblica, Milan, Italy

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  • Michela Minero,

    Affiliation: Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie e Sanità Pubblica, Milan, Italy

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  • Dirk Lebelt,

    Affiliation: Pferdeklinik Havelland / Havelland Equine Hospital, Beetzsee-Brielow, Germany

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  • Diana Stucke,

    Affiliation: Pferdeklinik Havelland / Havelland Equine Hospital, Beetzsee-Brielow, Germany

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  • Elisabetta Canali,

    Affiliation: Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie e Sanità Pubblica, Milan, Italy

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  • Matthew C. Leach

    Affiliation: Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food & Rural Development, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

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  • Published: March 19, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092281

About the Authors

Emanuela Dalla Costa, Michela Minero, Elisabetta Canali
Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie e Sanità Pubblica, Milan, Italy
Dirk Lebelt, Diana Stucke
Pferdeklinik Havelland / Havelland Equine Hospital, Beetzsee-Brielow, Germany
Matthew C. Leach
Newcastle University, School of Agriculture, Food & Rural Development, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: emanuela.dallacosta@unimi.it

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: EDC MM DS DL EC MCL. Performed the experiments: ECD MM DS DL. Analyzed the data: EDC MM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EDC MM DS DL EC MCL. Wrote the paper: EDC MM DS DL EC MCL. Development of HGS and technical support by: EDC MCL.