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Research Article

Evidence for a Time-Invariant Phase Variable in Human Ankle Control

  • Robert D. Gregg mail,

    rgregg@ieee.org

    Affiliation: Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America

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  • Elliott J. Rouse,

    Affiliation: Department of Media Arts and Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Levi J. Hargrove,

    Affiliations: Center for Bionic Medicine, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Jonathon W. Sensinger

    Affiliation: Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

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  • Published: February 18, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089163

About the Authors

Robert D. Gregg
Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas, United States of America
Elliott J. Rouse
Department of Media Arts and Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
Levi J. Hargrove
Center for Bionic Medicine, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Levi J. Hargrove
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Jonathon W. Sensinger
Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: rgregg@ieee.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RDG EJR LJH JWS. Performed the experiments: RDG EJR. Analyzed the data: RDG EJR JWS. Wrote the paper: RDG.