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Research Article

Genetic Structure of Avian Influenza Viruses from Ducks of the Atlantic Flyway of North America

  • Yanyan Huang,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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  • Michelle Wille,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    Current address: Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden

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  • Ashley Dobbin,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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  • Natasha M. Walzthöni,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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  • Gregory J. Robertson,

    Affiliation: Wildlife Research Division, Environment Canada, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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  • Davor Ojkic,

    Affiliation: Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

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  • Hugh Whitney,

    Affiliation: Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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  • Andrew S. Lang mail

    aslang@mun.ca

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

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  • Published: January 30, 2014
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086999

About the Authors

Yanyan Huang, Michelle Wille, Ashley Dobbin, Natasha M. Walzthöni, Andrew S. Lang
Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Gregory J. Robertson
Wildlife Research Division, Environment Canada, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Davor Ojkic
Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Hugh Whitney
Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: aslang@mun.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: YH MW GJR HW ASL. Performed the experiments: YH MW AD NMW. Analyzed the data: YH MW AD NMW ASL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GJR DO HW. Wrote the paper: YH MW GJR DO HW ASL.