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Research Article

Sex-Differences and Temporal Consistency in Stickleback Fish Boldness

  • Andrew J. King mail,

    a.j.king@swansea.ac.uk

    Affiliations: Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom, The Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Ines Fürtbauer,

    Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom

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  • Diamanto Mamuneas,

    Affiliation: The Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

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  • Charlotte James,

    Affiliation: The Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom

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  • Andrea Manica

    Affiliation: Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom

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  • Published: December 04, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081116

About the Authors

Andrew J. King, Ines Fürtbauer
Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom
Andrew J. King, Diamanto Mamuneas, Charlotte James
The Structure and Motion Laboratory, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
Andrew J. King, Andrea Manica
Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: a.j.king@swansea.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AJK AM. Performed the experiments: AJK DM CJ. Analyzed the data: AJK IF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AJK. Wrote the paper: AJK IF AM.