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Research Article

Profound Effects of Population Density on Fitness-Related Traits in an Invasive Freshwater Snail

  • Nicholas Zachar,

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

    X
  • Maurine Neiman mail

    maurine-neiman@uiowa.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

    X
  • Published: November 21, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080067

About the Authors

Nicholas Zachar, Maurine Neiman
Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: maurine-neiman@uiowa.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NZ MN. Performed the experiments: NZ. Analyzed the data: MN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MN. Wrote the paper: MN NZ.