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Research Article

Evidence against the Involvement of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis. A Case-Control Study

  • Ian W. Rodger mail,

    rodgeri@mcmaster.ca

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Dorothy Dilar,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Janet Dwyer,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • John Bienenstock,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Andu Coret,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Judith Coret-Simon,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Gary Foster,

    Affiliation: Biostatistics, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Arlene Franchetto,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Slobodan Franic,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Charles H. Goldsmith,

    Affiliation: Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

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  • David Koff,

    Affiliation: Department of Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Norman B. Konyer,

    Affiliation: Imaging Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Mitchell Levine,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Ellen McDonald,

    Affiliation: Clinical Research, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Michael D. Noseworthy,

    Affiliations: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Imaging Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • John Paulseth,

    Affiliation: Department of Neurology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Luciana Ribeiro,

    Affiliation: Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Mary Jane Sayles,

    Affiliation: Research Administration, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Lehana Thabane

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: August 14, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072495

About the Authors

Ian W. Rodger, John Bienenstock, Mitchell Levine
Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Mitchell Levine, Lehana Thabane
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Michael D. Noseworthy
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
John Bienenstock
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
John Paulseth
Department of Neurology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
David Koff
Department of Radiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Arlene Franchetto, Luciana Ribeiro
Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Ellen McDonald
Clinical Research, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Dorothy Dilar, Janet Dwyer, Andu Coret, Judith Coret-Simon, Slobodan Franic
Diagnostic Imaging, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Gary Foster
Biostatistics, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Mary Jane Sayles
Research Administration, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Norman B. Konyer, Michael D. Noseworthy
Imaging Research Centre, St Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Charles H. Goldsmith
Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: rodgeri@mcmaster.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: IR DD JD JB AC JC-S GF AF SF CG DK NK ML MN JP LR MJS LT. Performed the experiments: DD JD NK MN JP EM MJS. Analyzed the data: IR AC JC-S GF AF SF CG DK NK ML MN JP LR MJS LT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DD JD GF NK MN. Wrote the paper: IR DD JD JB AC JC-S GF AF SF CG DK NK ML EM MN JP LR MJS LT.