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Research Article

Earliest Evidence for Social Endogamy in the 9,000-Year-Old-Population of Basta, Jordan

  • Kurt W. Alt equal contributor mail,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Kurt W. Alt, Marion Benz

    altkw@uni-mainz.de

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany

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  • Marion Benz equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Kurt W. Alt, Marion Benz

    Affiliation: Department of Near Eastern Archaeology, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Wolfgang Müller,

    Affiliation: Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, United Kingdom

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  • Margit E. Berner,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Museum of Natural History, Vienna, Austria

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  • Michael Schultz,

    Affiliation: Department of Anatomy, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany

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  • Tyede H. Schmidt-Schultz,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany

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  • Corina Knipper,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany

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  • Hans-Georg K. Gebel,

    Affiliation: Department of Near Eastern Archaeology, Free University, Berlin, Germany

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  • Hans J. Nissen,

    Affiliation: Department of Near Eastern Archaeology, Free University, Berlin, Germany

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  • Werner Vach

    Affiliation: Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Center, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany

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  • Published: June 11, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065649

About the Authors

Kurt W. Alt, Corina Knipper
Department of Anthropology, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
Marion Benz
Department of Near Eastern Archaeology, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
Wolfgang Müller
Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, United Kingdom
Margit E. Berner
Department of Anthropology, Museum of Natural History, Vienna, Austria
Michael Schultz
Department of Anatomy, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany
Tyede H. Schmidt-Schultz
Department of Biochemistry, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany
Hans-Georg K. Gebel, Hans J. Nissen
Department of Near Eastern Archaeology, Free University, Berlin, Germany
Werner Vach
Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, University Medical Center, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: altkw@uni-mainz.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MB KWA. Performed the experiments: KWA WM WV. Analyzed the data: MB KWA WV WM CK. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KWA WM WV. Wrote the paper: MB KWA WV CK WM. Contributed basic anthropological data: MEB THSS MS. Provided ancient samples, contextual information, radiocarbon dating, and access to critical unpublished archaeological data: HJN HGKG. Provided input on the manuscript: MEB THSS MS.