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Research Article

Brain Responses to Words in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Predict Developmental Outcomes at Age 6

  • Patricia K. Kuhl mail,

    pkkuhl@u.washington.edu

    Affiliation: Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Sharon Coffey-Corina,

    Affiliation: Center for Mind and Brain, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Denise Padden,

    Affiliation: Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Jeffrey Munson,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Annette Estes,

    Affiliation: Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Geraldine Dawson

    Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America, The Autism Speaks Foundation, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Published: May 29, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064967

About the Authors

Patricia K. Kuhl, Denise Padden
Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Sharon Coffey-Corina
Center for Mind and Brain, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America
Jeffrey Munson
Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Annette Estes
Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Geraldine Dawson
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America
Geraldine Dawson
The Autism Speaks Foundation, New York, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: pkkuhl@u.washington.edu

Competing Interests

All authors except GD declare no competing interests. GD is the co-author of a book describing the Early Start Denver Model Intervention, from which she receives royalties. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Analyzed the data: SCC DP JM. Wrote the paper: PKK. Designed the Time 1 ERP experiment: PKK SCC. Designed the randomized, controlled trial from which the participants and Time 1 and Time 2 behavioral data were derived: GD. Designed the follow up study from which the Time 3 behavioral data were derived: GD AE JM. Conducted the Time 1 ERP experiment: SCC DP.