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Research Article

Scale Dependent Behavioral Responses to Human Development by a Large Predator, the Puma

  • Christopher C. Wilmers mail,

    cwilmers@ucsc.edu

    Affiliation: Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Yiwei Wang,

    Affiliation: Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Barry Nickel,

    Affiliation: Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Paul Houghtaling,

    Affiliation: Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Yasaman Shakeri,

    Affiliation: Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Maximilian L. Allen,

    Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand

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  • Joe Kermish-Wells,

    Affiliation: Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Veronica Yovovich,

    Affiliation: Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Terrie Williams

    Affiliation: Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

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  • Published: April 17, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060590

About the Authors

Christopher C. Wilmers, Yiwei Wang, Barry Nickel, Paul Houghtaling, Yasaman Shakeri, Joe Kermish-Wells, Veronica Yovovich
Environmental Studies Department, Center for Integrated Spatial Research, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America
Maximilian L. Allen
School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand
Terrie Williams
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: cwilmers@ucsc.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: CCW. Performed the experiments: CCW YW PH YS MA JKW VY TW. Analyzed the data: CCW YW BN JKW. Wrote the paper: CCW YW BN PH MA VY TW.