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Research Article

The Molecular Genetic Architecture of Self-Employment

  • Matthijs J. H. M. van der Loos mail,

    mvanderloos@ese.eur.nl

    Affiliations: Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Cornelius A. Rietveld,

    Affiliations: Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Niina Eklund,

    Affiliations: Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Public Health Genomics Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland

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  • Philipp D. Koellinger,

    Affiliations: Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Fernando Rivadeneira,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Gonçalo R. Abecasis,

    Affiliation: Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America

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  • Georgina A. Ankra-Badu,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Sebastian E. Baumeister,

    Affiliation: Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

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  • Daniel J. Benjamin,

    Affiliation: Department of Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America

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  • Reiner Biffar,

    Affiliation: Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Gerodontology and Biomaterials, Centre of Oral Health, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

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  • Stefan Blankenberg,

    Affiliation: Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

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  • Dorret I. Boomsma,

    Affiliation: Netherlands Twin Register, Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • David Cesarini,

    Affiliation: Center for Experimental Social Science, Department of Economics, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Francesco Cucca,

    Affiliation: Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Italy

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  • Eco J. C. de Geus,

    Affiliation: Netherlands Twin Register, Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • George Dedoussis,

    Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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  • Panos Deloukas,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Maria Dimitriou,

    Affiliation: Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece

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  • Guðny Eiriksdottir,

    Affiliation: Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland

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  • Johan Eriksson,

    Affiliations: Diabetes Prevention Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland, Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland, Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland

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  • Christian Gieger,

    Affiliation: Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Vilmundur Gudnason,

    Affiliations: Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland, Department of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • Birgit Höhne,

    Affiliations: Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Rolf Holle,

    Affiliation: Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany

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  • Jouke-Jan Hottenga,

    Affiliation: Netherlands Twin Register, Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Aaron Isaacs,

    Affiliations: Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands

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  • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin,

    Affiliations: Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Department of Life Course and Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Magnus Johannesson,

    Affiliation: Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Marika Kaakinen,

    Affiliation: Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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  • Mika Kähönen,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland, Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland

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  • Stavroula Kanoni,

    Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Maarit A. Laaksonen,

    Affiliation: Population Health Research Unit, Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland

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  • Jari Lahti,

    Affiliation: Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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  • Lenore J. Launer,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Terho Lehtimäki,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland, Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland

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  • Marisa Loitfelder,

    Affiliation: Division for Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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  • Patrik K. E. Magnusson,

    Affiliation: Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

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  • Silvia Naitza,

    Affiliation: Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Italy

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  • Ben A. Oostra,

    Affiliation: Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Markus Perola,

    Affiliations: Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Public Health Genomics Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland, Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

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  • Katja Petrovic,

    Affiliation: Division of General Neurology, Department of Neurology, General Hospital and Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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  • Lydia Quaye,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Olli Raitakari,

    Affiliations: Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland, Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

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  • Samuli Ripatti,

    Affiliations: Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Public Health Genomics Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom

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  • Paul Scheet,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America

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  • David Schlessinger,

    Affiliation: National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Carsten O. Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

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  • Helena Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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  • Reinhold Schmidt,

    Affiliation: Division for Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

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  • Andrea Senft,

    Affiliation: Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, Universität zu Lübeck, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany

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  • Albert V. Smith,

    Affiliations: Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland, Department of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • Timothy D. Spector,

    Affiliation: Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Ida Surakka,

    Affiliations: Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Public Health Genomics Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland

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  • Rauli Svento,

    Affiliation: Department of Economics, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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  • Antonio Terracciano,

    Affiliations: National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, College of Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America

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  • Emmi Tikkanen,

    Affiliations: Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, Public Health Genomics Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland

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  • Cornelia M. van Duijn,

    Affiliations: Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands

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  • Jorma Viikari,

    Affiliations: Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland, Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland

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  • Henry Völzke,

    Affiliation: Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany

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  • H. -Erich Wichmann,

    Affiliations: Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany, Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany

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  • Philipp S. Wild,

    Affiliations: Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany, Department of Medicine 2, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany

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  • Sara M. Willems,

    Affiliation: Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Gonneke Willemsen,

    Affiliation: Netherlands Twin Register, Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Frank J. A. van Rooij,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Patrick J. F. Groenen,

    Affiliation: Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • André G. Uitterlinden,

    Affiliations: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • Albert Hofman,

    Affiliation: Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

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  • A. Roy Thurik

    Affiliations: Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Panteia, Zoetermeer, The Netherlands, GSCM-Montpellier Business School, Montpellier, France

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  • Published: April 04, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060542

About the Authors

Matthijs J. H. M. van der Loos, Cornelius A. Rietveld, Philipp D. Koellinger, A. Roy Thurik
Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Matthijs J. H. M. van der Loos, Cornelius A. Rietveld, Philipp D. Koellinger, Fernando Rivadeneira, Frank J. A. van Rooij, André G. Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Niina Eklund, Markus Perola, Samuli Ripatti, Ida Surakka, Emmi Tikkanen
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Niina Eklund, Markus Perola, Samuli Ripatti, Ida Surakka, Emmi Tikkanen
Public Health Genomics Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, The National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
Fernando Rivadeneira, André G. Uitterlinden
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Gonçalo R. Abecasis
Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Georgina A. Ankra-Badu, Lydia Quaye, Timothy D. Spector
Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, United Kingdom
Sebastian E. Baumeister, Carsten O. Schmidt, Henry Völzke
Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Daniel J. Benjamin
Department of Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
Reiner Biffar
Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Gerodontology and Biomaterials, Centre of Oral Health, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
Stefan Blankenberg
Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
Dorret I. Boomsma, Eco J. C. de Geus, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Gonneke Willemsen
Netherlands Twin Register, Department of Biological Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
David Cesarini
Center for Experimental Social Science, Department of Economics, New York University, New York, New York, United States of America
Francesco Cucca, Silvia Naitza
Istituto di Ricerca Genetica e Biomedica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Cagliari, Italy
George Dedoussis, Maria Dimitriou
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Panos Deloukas, Stavroula Kanoni, Samuli Ripatti
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, United Kingdom
Guðny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Albert V. Smith
Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland
Johan Eriksson
Diabetes Prevention Unit, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
Johan Eriksson
Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Johan Eriksson
Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
Johan Eriksson
Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Johan Eriksson
Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland
Christian Gieger, Birgit Höhne
Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Vilmundur Gudnason, Albert V. Smith
Department of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Birgit Höhne
Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Rolf Holle
Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
Aaron Isaacs, Cornelia M. van Duijn, Sara M. Willems
Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Aaron Isaacs, Cornelia M. van Duijn
Centre for Medical Systems Biology, Leiden, The Netherlands
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Marika Kaakinen
Institute of Health Sciences and Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Life Course and Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland
Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
Magnus Johannesson
Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden
Mika Kähönen
Department of Clinical Physiology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Mika Kähönen
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland
Maarit A. Laaksonen
Population Health Research Unit, Department of Health, Functional Capacity and Welfare, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
Jari Lahti
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Lenore J. Launer
Laboratory of Epidemiology, Demography, and Biometry, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Terho Lehtimäki
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Terho Lehtimäki
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Tampere School of Medicine, Tampere, Finland
Marisa Loitfelder, Reinhold Schmidt
Division for Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Patrik K. E. Magnusson
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Ben A. Oostra
Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Markus Perola
Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
Katja Petrovic
Division of General Neurology, Department of Neurology, General Hospital and Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Olli Raitakari
Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
Olli Raitakari
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Paul Scheet
Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America
David Schlessinger, Antonio Terracciano
National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
Helena Schmidt
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
Andrea Senft
Institut für Medizinische Biometrie und Statistik, Universität zu Lübeck, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany
Rauli Svento
Department of Economics, Oulu Business School, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Antonio Terracciano
College of Medicine, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, United States of America
Jorma Viikari
Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
Jorma Viikari
Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
H. -Erich Wichmann
Institute of Epidemiology I, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany
H. -Erich Wichmann
Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany
H. -Erich Wichmann
Klinikum Grosshadern, Munich, Germany
Philipp S. Wild
Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Philipp S. Wild
Department of Medicine 2, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Patrick J. F. Groenen
Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
A. Roy Thurik
Panteia, Zoetermeer, The Netherlands
A. Roy Thurik
GSCM-Montpellier Business School, Montpellier, France

Corresponding Author

Email: mvanderloos@ese.eur.nl

Competing Interests

The authors would like to declare financial support by Philips Medical Systems for the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Philips Medical Systems provided the ultrasound machines for the GHS and had no role in the current research. Hence, funding by Philips Medical Systems does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Individual study design and management: GRA RB SB DIB DC FC EJCdG GD PD GE JE CG VG AH M-RJ MJ LJL BAO MP SR DS R. Schmidt COS TDS AT CMvD HV H-EW PSW GW. Data collection: SB DIB DC EJCdG MD JE RH M-RJ MJ M. Kähönen JL TL PKEM KP OR R. Schmidt AVS TDS FJAvR JV PSW GW. Genotyping: SB PD J-JH TL PKEM FR HS AVS AGU PSW GW. Genotype preparation: GRA J-JH TL PKEM FR HS AS AVS AGU. Phenotype preparation: GAA-B SEB SB DC NE BH M. Kähönen JL ML SN KP OR AVS AT MJHMvdL FJAvR JV PSW GW. Study data analysis: GRA SEB NE J-JH AI M. Kaakinen M. Kähönen SK MAL TL ML KP OR CAR AS PS AVS IS ET MJHMvdL JV SMW. Manuscript review: SEB DJB SB DIB DC GD GE NE PJFG AH RH J-JH MJ PDK MAL PKEM MP LQ FR DS R. Schmidt COS AS AVS R. Svento AT ART AGU FJAvR HV PSW. Analysis plan development: PDK MJHMvdL. Analysis plan review: FR FJAvR AGU. Meta-analyses: NE MJHMvdL. Manuscript preparation: CAR MJHMvdL. Heritability, accounted-for variance by common SNPs, and prediction analyses: CAR MJHMvdL. Review and interpretation of analyses: PJFG AH PDK CAR FR ART AGU MJHMvdL FJAvR. Conceived and designed the study: AH PDK ART. Organize and oversee consortium: AH ART.