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Research Article

A Large-Scale, Higher-Level, Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Insect Order Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies)

  • Jerome C. Regier mail,

    regier@umd.edu (JCR); cmitter@umd.edu (CM)

    Affiliations: Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Charles Mitter mail,

    regier@umd.edu (JCR); cmitter@umd.edu (CM)

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Andreas Zwick,

    Affiliation: Entomology, State Museum of Natural History, Stuttgart, Germany

    X
  • Adam L. Bazinet,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Evolution, Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Michael P. Cummings,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Molecular Evolution, Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Akito Y. Kawahara,

    Affiliation: Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America

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  • Jae-Cheon Sohn,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Derrick J. Zwickl,

    Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America

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  • Soowon Cho,

    Affiliation: Department of Plant Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea

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  • Donald R. Davis,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America

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  • Joaquin Baixeras,

    Affiliation: Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

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  • John Brown,

    Affiliation: Systematic Entomology Lab, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Cynthia Parr,

    Affiliation: Encyclopedia of Life, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America

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  • Susan Weller,

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • David C. Lees,

    Affiliation: Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, England

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  • Kim T. Mitter

    Affiliation: Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: March 12, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058568

About the Authors

Jerome C. Regier
Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
Jerome C. Regier, Charles Mitter, Jae-Cheon Sohn, Kim T. Mitter
Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
Andreas Zwick
Entomology, State Museum of Natural History, Stuttgart, Germany
Adam L. Bazinet, Michael P. Cummings
Laboratory of Molecular Evolution, Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America
Akito Y. Kawahara
Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America
Derrick J. Zwickl
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America
Soowon Cho
Department of Plant Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea
Donald R. Davis
Department of Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
Joaquin Baixeras
Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
John Brown
Systematic Entomology Lab, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland, United States of America
Cynthia Parr
Encyclopedia of Life, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
Susan Weller
Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
David C. Lees
Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, England

Corresponding Authors

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Oversaw taxon collection: CM. Helped oversee taxon collection: KTM. Directed sequence generation: JCR. Assembled, error-checked, and submitted all sequences to GenBank: JCR AZ AYK. Conceived all analyses: JCR CM MPC AZ AYK ALB DJZ J-CS. Performed phylogenetic analyses: JCR AZ ALB J-CS. Wrote and assembled the manuscript: JCR CM. Commented on the manuscript: JCR CM MPC AZ AYK ALB DJZ J-CS SC DRD JB JB CP SW DCL KTM.