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Research Article

High Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Avian Influenza Viruses among Wild Waterfowl in Alaska: Implications for Surveillance

  • Heather M. Wilson mail,

    heather_wilson@fws.gov

    Affiliation: United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Management, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America

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  • Jeffery S. Hall,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Paul L. Flint,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America

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  • J. Christian Franson,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Craig R. Ely,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America

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  • Joel A. Schmutz,

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America

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  • Michael D. Samuel

    Affiliation: United States Geological Survey, Wisconsin Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

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  • Published: March 05, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058308

About the Authors

Heather M. Wilson
United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Management, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America
Jeffery S. Hall, J. Christian Franson
United States Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America
Paul L. Flint, Craig R. Ely, Joel A. Schmutz
United States Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America
Michael D. Samuel
United States Geological Survey, Wisconsin Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: heather_wilson@fws.gov

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: HMW JSH PLF. Performed the experiments: HMW JSH PLF CRE JAS MDS JCF. Analyzed the data: HMW PLF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HMW JSH PLF CRE JAS MDS JCF. Wrote the paper: HMW.