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Research Article

Hailstones: A Window into the Microbial and Chemical Inventory of a Storm Cloud

  • Tina Šantl-Temkiv,

    Affiliations: Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark, Microbiology Section, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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  • Kai Finster,

    Affiliations: Microbiology Section, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

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  • Thorsten Dittmar,

    Affiliation: Max Planck Research Group for Marine Geochemistry, Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

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  • Bjarne Munk Hansen,

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark

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  • Runar Thyrhaug †,

    † Deceased.

    Affiliation: Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

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  • Niels Woetmann Nielsen,

    Affiliation: Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Ulrich Gosewinkel Karlson mail

    uka@dmu.dk

    Affiliation: Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark

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  • Published: January 23, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053550

About the Authors

Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Bjarne Munk Hansen, Ulrich Gosewinkel Karlson
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Kai Finster
Microbiology Section, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Kai Finster
Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Thorsten Dittmar
Max Planck Research Group for Marine Geochemistry, Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
Runar Thyrhaug
Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
Niels Woetmann Nielsen
Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark

Corresponding Author

Email: uka@dmu.dk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: TŠT KF BMH UGK. Performed the experiments: TŠT TD RT. Analyzed the data: TŠT TD RT NWN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TŠT TD RT KF BMH UGK. Wrote the paper: TŠT KF UGK TD.