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Research Article

Low Vitamin D Status and Suicide: A Case-Control Study of Active Duty Military Service Members

  • John C. Umhau mail,

    umhau@jhu.edu

    Affiliation: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • David T. George,

    Affiliation: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Robert P. Heaney,

    Affiliation: Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America

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  • Michael D. Lewis,

    Affiliation: Department of Preventive Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland

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  • Robert J. Ursano,

    Affiliation: Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Markus Heilig,

    Affiliation: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Joseph R. Hibbeln equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Joseph R. Hibbeln, Melanie L. Schwandt

    Affiliation: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Melanie L. Schwandt equal contributor

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Joseph R. Hibbeln, Melanie L. Schwandt

    Affiliation: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

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  • Published: January 04, 2013
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051543

About the Authors

John C. Umhau, David T. George, Markus Heilig, Joseph R. Hibbeln, Melanie L. Schwandt
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
Robert P. Heaney
Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America
Michael D. Lewis
Department of Preventive Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland
Robert J. Ursano
Department of Psychiatry, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: umhau@jhu.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: JCU JRH MDL. Performed the experiments: JCU JRH MDL. Analyzed the data: JCU RPH MLS DTG RJU MH. Wrote the paper: JCU MLS. Critically revised manuscript for important intellectual content: DTG RPH MDL RJU MH JRH MLS.