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Research Article

Energy, Water and Fish: Biodiversity Impacts of Energy-Sector Water Demand in the United States Depend on Efficiency and Policy Measures

  • Robert I. McDonald mail,

    rob_mcdonald@tnc.org

    Affiliation: Worldwide Office, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

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  • Julian D. Olden,

    Affiliation: School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America

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  • Jeffrey J. Opperman,

    Affiliation: Freshwater Focal Area Program, The Nature Conservancy, Chargin Falls, Ohio, United States of America

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  • William M. Miller,

    Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Joseph Fargione,

    Affiliation: North America Region, The Nature Conservancy, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Carmen Revenga,

    Affiliation: Marine Focal Area Program, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

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  • Jonathan V. Higgins,

    Affiliation: Freshwater Focal Area Program, The Nature Conservancy, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

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  • Jimmie Powell

    Affiliation: Worldwide Office, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America

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  • Published: November 21, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050219

About the Authors

Robert I. McDonald, Jimmie Powell
Worldwide Office, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America
Julian D. Olden
School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
Jeffrey J. Opperman
Freshwater Focal Area Program, The Nature Conservancy, Chargin Falls, Ohio, United States of America
William M. Miller
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America
Joseph Fargione
North America Region, The Nature Conservancy, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
Carmen Revenga
Marine Focal Area Program, The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, United States of America
Jonathan V. Higgins
Freshwater Focal Area Program, The Nature Conservancy, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rob_mcdonald@tnc.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: RIM JJO WMM JF CR JVH JP. Performed the experiments: RIM JDO JJO. Analyzed the data: RIM JDO JJO WMM JF. Wrote the paper: RIM JDO JJO WMM JF JVH.