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Research Article

Effects of a Post-Shock Injection of the Kappa Opioid Receptor Antagonist Norbinaltorphimine (norBNI) on Fear and Anxiety in Rats

  • Benjamin Rogala equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Benjamin Rogala, Yonghui Li

    Affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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  • Yonghui Li equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Benjamin Rogala, Yonghui Li

    Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

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  • Sa Li,

    Affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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  • Xiaoyu Chen,

    Affiliation: Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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  • Gilbert J. Kirouac mail

    kirouac@cc.umanitoba.ca

    Affiliations: Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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  • Published: November 14, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049669

About the Authors

Benjamin Rogala, Sa Li, Xiaoyu Chen, Gilbert J. Kirouac
Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Yonghui Li
Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
Gilbert J. Kirouac
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: kirouac@cc.umanitoba.ca

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: YL GK. Performed the experiments: BR SL XC. Analyzed the data: SL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: GK YL BR.