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Research Article

Understanding the Impacts of Land-Use Policies on a Threatened Species: Is There a Future for the Bornean Orang-utan?

  • Serge A. Wich mail,

    s.a.wich@ljmu.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

    X
  • David Gaveau,

    Affiliation: Centre for International Forestry Research, Situ Gede, Bogor Barat, West Java, Indonesia

    X
  • Nicola Abram,

    Affiliation: Durrell Institute for Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom

    X
  • Marc Ancrenaz,

    Affiliations: Sabah Wildlife Department, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, HUTAN, Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Programme, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, North England Zoological Society, Chester Zoo, Chester, United Kingdom

    X
  • Alessandro Baccini,

    Affiliation: The Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Stephen Brend,

    Affiliation: Orangutan Foundation, London, United Kingdom

    X
  • Lisa Curran,

    Affiliations: Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, California, United States of America, Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America

    X
  • Roberto A. Delgado,

    Affiliation: Departments of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, Program in Integrative and Evolutionary Biology (IEB), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States of America

    X
  • Andi Erman,

    Affiliation: GFA/KWF, Kapuas Hulu Program, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Gabriella M. Fredriksson,

    Affiliations: Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme (PanEco-YEL), Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics/Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    X
  • Benoit Goossens,

    Affiliations: Danau Girang Field Centre, c/o Sabah Willife Department, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom

    X
  • Simon J. Husson,

    Affiliation: Orangutan Tropical Peatland Project, c/o the Center for International Cooperation in the Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands (CIMTROP), University of Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Isabelle Lackman,

    Affiliations: Sabah Wildlife Department, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, HUTAN, Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Programme, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    X
  • Andrew J. Marshall,

    Affiliation: Department of Anthropology, Graduate Group in Ecology, Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Anita Naomi,

    Affiliation: Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme (PanEco-YEL), Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia

    X
  • Elis Molidena,

    Affiliation: Centre for International Forestry Research, Situ Gede, Bogor Barat, West Java, Indonesia

    X
  • Nardiyono,

    Affiliations: Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Jakarta, Indonesia

    X
  • Anton Nurcahyo,

    Affiliations: Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), Nyaru Menteng, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Kisar Odom,

    Affiliation: Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), Nyaru Menteng, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Adventus Panda,

    Affiliation: World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), Sebangau Conservation Program/University of Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Purnomo,

    Affiliation: The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Jakarta, Indonesia

    X
  • Andjar Rafiastanto,

    Affiliations: Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Flora and Fauna International-Indonesia, Ragunan, Jakarta, Indonesia

    X
  • Dessy Ratnasari,

    Affiliation: Lembaga Living Landscapes Indonesia (LLI), Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Adi H. Santana,

    Affiliation: Biology Faculty, Universitas Nasional (UNAS), Jakarta, Indonesia

    X
  • Imam Sapari,

    Affiliations: Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia (YAYORIN), Pangkalan Bun, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Carel P. van Schaik,

    Affiliation: Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

    X
  • Jamartin Sihite,

    Affiliations: Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Restorasi Habitat Orangutan Indonesia (RHOI), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia

    X
  • Stephanie Spehar,

    Affiliation: Anthropology Program, Department of Religious Studies and Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, United States of America

    X
  • Eddy Santoso,

    Affiliation: Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia (YAYORIN), Pangkalan Bun, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

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  • Amat Suyoko,

    Affiliation: Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), Nyaru Menteng, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    X
  • Albertus Tiju,

    Affiliations: Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), West Kalimantan Program, Indonesia

    X
  • Graham Usher,

    Affiliation: Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme (PanEco-YEL), Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia

    X
  • Sri Suci Utami Atmoko,

    Affiliations: Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, Biology Faculty, Universitas Nasional (UNAS), Jakarta, Indonesia

    X
  • Erik P. Willems,

    Affiliation: Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

    X
  • Erik Meijaard

    Affiliations: People and Nature Consulting International, Ciputat, Jakarta, Indonesia, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

    X
  • Published: November 07, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049142

About the Authors

Serge A. Wich
Research Centre in Evolutionary Anthropology and Palaeoecology, School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom
David Gaveau, Elis Molidena
Centre for International Forestry Research, Situ Gede, Bogor Barat, West Java, Indonesia
Nicola Abram
Durrell Institute for Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom
Marc Ancrenaz, Isabelle Lackman
Sabah Wildlife Department, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Marc Ancrenaz, Isabelle Lackman
HUTAN, Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Programme, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Marc Ancrenaz
North England Zoological Society, Chester Zoo, Chester, United Kingdom
Alessandro Baccini
The Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth, Massachusetts, United States of America
Stephen Brend
Orangutan Foundation, London, United Kingdom
Lisa Curran
Woods Institute for the Environment, Stanford University, California, United States of America
Lisa Curran
Department of Anthropology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
Roberto A. Delgado
Departments of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, Program in Integrative and Evolutionary Biology (IEB), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States of America
Andi Erman
GFA/KWF, Kapuas Hulu Program, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
Gabriella M. Fredriksson, Anita Naomi, Graham Usher
Sumatran Orangutan Conservation Programme (PanEco-YEL), Medan, Sumatra, Indonesia
Gabriella M. Fredriksson
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics/Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Benoit Goossens
Danau Girang Field Centre, c/o Sabah Willife Department, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
Benoit Goossens
Organisms and Environment Division, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom
Simon J. Husson
Orangutan Tropical Peatland Project, c/o the Center for International Cooperation in the Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands (CIMTROP), University of Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Andrew J. Marshall
Department of Anthropology, Graduate Group in Ecology, Animal Behavior Graduate Group, University of California Davis, California, United States of America
Nardiyono, Anton Nurcahyo, Andjar Rafiastanto, Imam Sapari, Jamartin Sihite, Albertus Tiju, Sri Suci Utami Atmoko
Forum Orangutan Indonesia (FORINA), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
Nardiyono, Purnomo
The Nature Conservancy (TNC), Jakarta, Indonesia
Anton Nurcahyo, Kisar Odom, Amat Suyoko
Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), Nyaru Menteng, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Adventus Panda
World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), Sebangau Conservation Program/University of Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Andjar Rafiastanto
Flora and Fauna International-Indonesia, Ragunan, Jakarta, Indonesia
Dessy Ratnasari
Lembaga Living Landscapes Indonesia (LLI), Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
Adi H. Santana, Sri Suci Utami Atmoko
Biology Faculty, Universitas Nasional (UNAS), Jakarta, Indonesia
Imam Sapari, Eddy Santoso
Yayasan Orangutan Indonesia (YAYORIN), Pangkalan Bun, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
Carel P. van Schaik, Erik P. Willems
Anthropological Institute and Museum, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Jamartin Sihite
Restorasi Habitat Orangutan Indonesia (RHOI), Bogor, West Java, Indonesia
Stephanie Spehar
Anthropology Program, Department of Religious Studies and Anthropology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, United States of America
Albertus Tiju
World Wide Fund for Nature-Indonesia (WWF-Indonesia), West Kalimantan Program, Indonesia
Erik Meijaard
People and Nature Consulting International, Ciputat, Jakarta, Indonesia
Erik Meijaard
School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
Erik Meijaard
School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

Corresponding Author

Email: s.a.wich@ljmu.ac.uk

Competing Interests

E. Meijaard is presently employed by People and Nature Consulting International (PNCI). PNCI had no role in the study, and the company does not benefit financially from the research. The affiliation with PNCI does not alter E. Meijaard's adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: SAW DG NA MA E. Meijaard. Performed the experiments: SAW DG NA MA GU E. Meijaard. Analyzed the data: SAW DG NA MA GU E. Meijaard. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SAW DG NA MA AB SB LC RAD AE GMF BG SJH IL AJM A. Naomi E. Molidena N A. Nurcahyo KO AP PAR DR AHS IS CPS JS SS ES AS AT GU SSUA EPW E. Meijaard. Wrote the paper: SAW DG NA MA E. Meijaard.