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Research Article

Pre-, Per- and Postoperative Factors Affecting Performance of Postlinguistically Deaf Adults Using Cochlear Implants: A New Conceptual Model over Time

  • Diane S. Lazard mail,

    dianelazard@yahoo.fr

    Affiliation: Bionics Institute, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Christophe Vincent,

    Affiliation: Service d'otologie et d'otoneurologie, Hôpital R.-Salengro, CHRU de Lille, Lille, France

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  • Frédéric Venail,

    Affiliation: CHU Gui de Chauliac, Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Montpellier, France

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  • Paul Van de Heyning,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Eric Truy,

    Affiliation: Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Département d'ORL, de Chirurgie Cervico-Maxillo-Faciale et d'Audiophonologie, Lyon, France

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  • Olivier Sterkers,

    Affiliation: AP-HP, Hôpital Beaujon, Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Clichy, France

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  • Piotr H. Skarzynski,

    Affiliations: Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland, Institute of Sensory Organs, Kajetany, Poland

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  • Henryk Skarzynski,

    Affiliation: Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland

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  • Karen Schauwers,

    Affiliation: The Eargroup, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Stephen O'Leary,

    Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne Cochlear Implant Clinic, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Deborah Mawman,

    Affiliation: University of Manchester, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Bert Maat,

    Affiliation: University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Cochlear Implant Center Northern Netherlands, Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • Andrea Kleine-Punte,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Alexander M. Huber,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

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  • Kevin Green,

    Affiliation: University of Manchester, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom

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  • Paul J. Govaerts,

    Affiliation: The Eargroup, Antwerp, Belgium

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  • Bernard Fraysse,

    Affiliation: Hôpital Universitaire Purpan, Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Toulouse, France

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  • Richard Dowell,

    Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne Cochlear Implant Clinic, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Norbert Dillier,

    Affiliation: Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

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  • Elaine Burke,

    Affiliation: St Thomas' Hospital, Auditory Implants Department, London, United Kingdom

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  • Andy Beynon,

    Affiliation: Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Mijmegen, The Netherlands

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  • François Bergeron,

    Affiliation: Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada

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  • Deniz Başkent,

    Affiliations: University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Cochlear Implant Center Northern Netherlands, Groningen, The Netherlands, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Research School of Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences), University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands

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  • Françoise Artières,

    Affiliations: CHU Gui de Chauliac, Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Montpellier, France, Institut Saint Pierre, Service d'Audiophonologie et ORL, Palavas les flots, France

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  • Peter J. Blamey

    Affiliations: Bionics Institute, Melbourne, Australia, Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne Cochlear Implant Clinic, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia

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  • Published: November 09, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048739

About the Authors

Diane S. Lazard, Peter J. Blamey
Bionics Institute, Melbourne, Australia
Christophe Vincent
Service d'otologie et d'otoneurologie, Hôpital R.-Salengro, CHRU de Lille, Lille, France
Frédéric Venail, Françoise Artières
CHU Gui de Chauliac, Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Montpellier, France
Paul Van de Heyning, Andrea Kleine-Punte
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Eric Truy
Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Département d'ORL, de Chirurgie Cervico-Maxillo-Faciale et d'Audiophonologie, Lyon, France
Olivier Sterkers
AP-HP, Hôpital Beaujon, Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Clichy, France
Piotr H. Skarzynski, Henryk Skarzynski
Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw, Poland
Piotr H. Skarzynski
Institute of Sensory Organs, Kajetany, Poland
Karen Schauwers, Paul J. Govaerts
The Eargroup, Antwerp, Belgium
Stephen O'Leary, Richard Dowell, Peter J. Blamey
Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne Cochlear Implant Clinic, The Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
Deborah Mawman, Kevin Green
University of Manchester, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom
Bert Maat, Deniz Başkent
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Cochlear Implant Center Northern Netherlands, Groningen, The Netherlands
Alexander M. Huber, Norbert Dillier
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Bernard Fraysse
Hôpital Universitaire Purpan, Service d'ORL et Chirurgie Cervico-Faciale, Toulouse, France
Elaine Burke
St Thomas' Hospital, Auditory Implants Department, London, United Kingdom
Andy Beynon
Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Mijmegen, The Netherlands
François Bergeron
Faculté de médecine, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada
Deniz Başkent
Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Research School of Behavioural and Cognitive Neurosciences), University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Françoise Artières
Institut Saint Pierre, Service d'Audiophonologie et ORL, Palavas les flots, France

Corresponding Author

Email: dianelazard@yahoo.fr

Competing Interests

Most of the authors of this paper are involved in the purchase and application of cochlear implants from one or more of the four largest manufacturers (Advanced Bionics, Cochlear Limited, Med-El, and Neurelec). Peter Blamey is a co-inventor of technologies used in the device manufactured by Cochlear Limited and formerly received a share of royalties from the University of Melbourne. He is not a shareholder in Cochlear and no longer receives royalties. The hearing aid company, Blamey & Saunders Hearing Pty Ltd, regularly refers people with severe-to-profound hearing loss to cochlear implant clinics whenever it seems likely that a CI will provide a better clinical outcome than a HA. The Bionics Institute has a small shareholding in Cochlear Limited. DL received travel support from Cochlear in 2010/11. Neurelec partially funded her PhD work in 2009/10, but was not involved in the research project (fMRI). This dataset is a very rare resource enabling comparison of different devices from different manufacturers and from different cochlear implant clinics and the data analysts (Blamey and Lazard) designed the study and analysis in a way that treats data for these different devices equivalently to avoid any possibility of bias. Statistically significant differences between the device brands were found in the analysis, and the device brands have been de-identified in the manuscript to avoid use of the data for commercial advantage. This has been a difficult decision because de-identification of the brands is also withholding important information about clinical outcomes from potential patients and clinicians. The authors agree to share the (de-identified) data on request for academic, non-commercial purposes if the paper is published.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DL CV FV PVdH ET OS PHS HS KS SO DM BM AKP AMH KG PJG BF RD ND EB AB FB DB FA PJB. Analyzed the data: DL PJB. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DL PJB. Wrote the paper: DL PJB. Critically revised the manuscript: DL CV FV PVdH ET OS PHS HS KS SO DM BM AKP AMH KG PJG BF RD ND EB AB FB DB FA PJB.