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Research Article

Pathways to Age of Onset of Heroin Use: A Structural Model Approach Exploring the Relationship of the COMT Gene, Impulsivity and Childhood Trauma

  • Ting Li equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Ting Li, Jiang Du

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Jiang Du equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Ting Li, Jiang Du

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Shunying Yu,

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Haifeng Jiang,

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Yingmei Fu,

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Dongxiang Wang,

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Haiming Sun,

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Hanhui Chen,

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Min Zhao mail

    drminzhao@gmail.com

    Affiliation: Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

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  • Published: November 14, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048735

About the Authors

Ting Li, Jiang Du, Shunying Yu, Haifeng Jiang, Yingmei Fu, Dongxiang Wang, Haiming Sun, Hanhui Chen, Min Zhao
Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

Corresponding Author

Email: drminzhao@gmail.com

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MZ SY. Performed the experiments: JD HJ YF HS HC DW. Analyzed the data: TL MZ. Wrote the paper: TL JD MZ.