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Research Article

Endobiont Viruses Sensed by the Human Host – Beyond Conventional Antiparasitic Therapy

  • Raina N. Fichorova mail,

    rfichorova@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Yujin Lee equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Yujin Lee, Hidemi S. Yamamoto

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Hidemi S. Yamamoto equal contributor,

    equal contributor Contributed equally to this work with: Yujin Lee, Hidemi S. Yamamoto

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Yuko Takagi,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Gary R. Hayes,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Russell P. Goodman,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Xenia Chepa-Lotrea,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    Current address: Xenia Chepa-Lotrea: NIH, NIDDK, Liver Disease Branch Immunology, Section, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

    X
  • Olivia R. Buck,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Ryan Murray,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    Current address: Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Tomasz Kula,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • David H. Beach,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Bibhuti N. Singh,

    Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

    X
  • Max L. Nibert

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

    X
  • Published: November 07, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048418

About the Authors

Raina N. Fichorova, Yujin Lee, Hidemi S. Yamamoto, Xenia Chepa-Lotrea, Olivia R. Buck, Ryan Murray
Laboratory of Genital Tract Biology, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Yuko Takagi, Russell P. Goodman, Tomasz Kula, Max L. Nibert
Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
Gary R. Hayes, Bibhuti N. Singh
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America
David H. Beach
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: rfichorova@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Performed the experiments: RNF YL HSY ORB XCL. Analyzed the data: RNF YL HSY RM ORB. Wrote the paper: RNF. Conceived and designed the experiments, immunology and cell biology: RNF; virology: MLN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, LPS and primary TV isolates: BNS DHB GH; virion isolation and RT-PCR: YT TK RPG; TVV dsRNA and RNAse treatments: YT; TV culture: DHB GH XCL RM ORB RNF; TV cloning: RNF; Western blot: ORB; qNPA: HSY; luciferase and immunoassays: YL HSY RM ORB. Reviewed and approved the manuscript: RNF YL HSY YT GH RPG XCL ORB RM TK DHB BNS MLN. Recruited clinical subjects: BNS.