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Research Article

In Vivo Capsular Switch in Streptococcus pneumoniae – Analysis by Whole Genome Sequencing

  • Fen Z. Hu,

    Affiliations: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Rory Eutsey,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Azad Ahmed,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Nelson Frazao,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica Oeiras, Portugal, Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Evan Powell,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • N. Luisa Hiller,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Todd Hillman,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Farrel J. Buchinsky,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Robert Boissy,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Benjamin Janto,

    Affiliations: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Jennifer Kress-Bennett,

    Affiliations: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Mark Longwell,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Suzanne Ezzo,

    Affiliation: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • J. Christopher Post,

    Affiliations: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Deparment of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Mirjana Nesin,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Alexander Tomasz,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

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  • Garth D. Ehrlich mail

    gehrlich@wpahs.org

    Affiliations: Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Deparment of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: November 08, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047983

About the Authors

Fen Z. Hu, Rory Eutsey, Azad Ahmed, Evan Powell, N. Luisa Hiller, Todd Hillman, Farrel J. Buchinsky, Robert Boissy, Benjamin Janto, Jennifer Kress-Bennett, Mark Longwell, Suzanne Ezzo, J. Christopher Post, Garth D. Ehrlich
Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Fen Z. Hu, Benjamin Janto, Jennifer Kress-Bennett, J. Christopher Post, Garth D. Ehrlich
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
J. Christopher Post, Garth D. Ehrlich
Deparment of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel College of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Nelson Frazao
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica Oeiras, Portugal
Nelson Frazao, Mirjana Nesin, Alexander Tomasz
Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: gehrlich@wpahs.org

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: FZH RE NF NLH AT GDE. Performed the experiments: RE AA NF EP NLH BJ JB ML SE. Analyzed the data: FZH TH FJB RB JCP AT GDE MN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: FZH AT GDE. Wrote the paper: FZH NLH AT GDE.