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Research Article

Rethinking Clinical Trials of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Participant and Assessor Blinding Is Inadequate at Intensities of 2mA

  • Neil E. O’Connell mail,

    neil.oconnell@brunel.ac.uk

    Affiliation: Centre for Research in Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom

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  • John Cossar,

    Affiliation: Centre for Research in Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom

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  • Louise Marston,

    Affiliation: Research Department of Primary Care & Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom

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  • Benedict M. Wand,

    Affiliation: School of Physiotherapy, University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, Australia

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  • David Bunce,

    Affiliation: Centre for Cognition and Neuroimaging, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom

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  • G. Lorimer Moseley,

    Affiliation: Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, & Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, Australia

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  • Lorraine H. De Souza

    Affiliation: Centre for Research in Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom

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  • Published: October 17, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047514
  • Featured in PLOS Collections

About the Authors

Neil E. O’Connell, John Cossar, Lorraine H. De Souza
Centre for Research in Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom
Louise Marston
Research Department of Primary Care & Population Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Benedict M. Wand
School of Physiotherapy, University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, Australia
David Bunce
Centre for Cognition and Neuroimaging, Brunel University, London, United Kingdom
G. Lorimer Moseley
Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, & Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, Australia

Corresponding Author

Email: neil.oconnell@brunel.ac.uk

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: NEO BMW GLM LM LHD DB JC. Performed the experiments: NEO JC. Analyzed the data: NEO LM. Wrote the paper: NEO BMW GLM LM LHD DB JC.