Advertisement
Research Article

The Bite of the Honeybee: 2-Heptanone Secreted from Honeybee Mandibles during a Bite Acts as a Local Anaesthetic in Insects and Mammals

  • Alexandros Papachristoforou mail,

    papachri@legs.cnrs-gif.fr

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Spéciation, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus

    X
  • Alexia Kagiava,

    Affiliations: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics Neuroscience, Nicosia, Cyprus

    X
  • Chrisovalantis Papaefthimiou,

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

    X
  • Aikaterini Termentzi,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    X
  • Nikolas Fokialakis,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    X
  • Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis,

    Affiliation: Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    X
  • Max Watkins,

    Affiliation: Vita (Europe) Limited, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom

    X
  • Gérard Arnold,

    Affiliations: Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Spéciation, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France

    X
  • George Theophilidis

    Affiliation: Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

    X
  • Published: October 16, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047432

About the Authors

Alexandros Papachristoforou, Alexia Kagiava, Chrisovalantis Papaefthimiou, George Theophilidis
Laboratory of Animal Physiology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
Alexandros Papachristoforou, Gérard Arnold
Laboratoire Evolution, Génomes, Spéciation, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Alexandros Papachristoforou, Gérard Arnold
Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France
Alexandros Papachristoforou
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus
Alexia Kagiava
The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics Neuroscience, Nicosia, Cyprus
Aikaterini Termentzi, Nikolas Fokialakis, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis
Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
Max Watkins
Vita (Europe) Limited, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom

Corresponding Author

Email: papachri@legs.cnrs-gif.fr

Competing Interests

The authors have read the journal's policy and have the following conflicts: the research was funded through Vita (Europe) Limited, a small UK company specialising only in honeybee health. MW works for this company. The original studies examined honeybee behaviour and they discovered the anaesthetisation properties of 2-H in the mammalian peripheral nervous systems as an extension to the honeybee biology work. Vita has now filed a patent on the potential use of 2-heptanone as a local anaesthetic (International Patent Application number: PCT/GB2012/050157). This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. All other authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AP GT MW. Performed the experiments: AP GT CP GA AK MW ALS AT NF. Analyzed the data: AP GT CP GA AK MW ALS AT NF. Wrote the paper: AP GT CP GA.