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Research Article

The Lung Microbiome in Moderate and Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

  • Alexa A. Pragman,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Hyeun Bum Kim,

    Affiliation: Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

    Current address: Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, United States of America

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  • Cavan S. Reilly,

    Affiliation: Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Christine Wendt,

    Affiliation: Department of Medicine, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America, and for the FORTE Study Group

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  • Richard E. Isaacson mail

    isaac015@umn.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America

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  • Published: October 11, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047305

About the Authors

Alexa A. Pragman
Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
Hyeun Bum Kim, Richard E. Isaacson
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
Cavan S. Reilly
Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America
Christine Wendt
Department of Medicine, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States of America, and for the FORTE Study Group

Corresponding Author

Email: isaac015@umn.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AAP CW REI. Performed the experiments: AAP. Analyzed the data: AAP REI CW CR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HBK CW. Wrote the paper: AAP HBK CW REI.