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Research Article

Allopatry as a Gordian Knot for Taxonomists: Patterns of DNA Barcode Divergence in Arctic-Alpine Lepidoptera

  • Marko Mutanen mail,

    marko.mutanen@oulu.fi

    Affiliation: Zoological Museum, Department of Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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  • Axel Hausmann,

    Affiliation: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Sektion Lepidoptera, München, Germany

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  • Paul D. N. Hebert,

    Affiliation: Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

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  • Jean-François Landry,

    Affiliation: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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  • Jeremy R. de Waard,

    Affiliation: Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

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  • Peter Huemer

    Affiliation: Tiroler Landesmuseen Betriebsges.m.b.H., Innsbruck, Austria

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  • Published: October 11, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047214

About the Authors

Marko Mutanen
Zoological Museum, Department of Biology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Axel Hausmann
Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Sektion Lepidoptera, München, Germany
Paul D. N. Hebert, Jeremy R. de Waard
Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
Jean-François Landry
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Peter Huemer
Tiroler Landesmuseen Betriebsges.m.b.H., Innsbruck, Austria

Corresponding Author

Email: marko.mutanen@oulu.fi

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MM PH. Performed the experiments: MM PH. Analyzed the data: MM JFL JRdW PH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MM AH PDNH JFL JRdW PH. Wrote the paper: MM AH PDNH JFL JRdW PH.