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Research Article

Occupational Attainment as a Marker of Cognitive Reserve in Multiple Sclerosis

  • Omar Ghaffar mail,

    omar.ghaffar@utoronto.ca

    Affiliations: Neuropsychiatry and Brain Sciences Programs, Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Neuropsychiatry Services, Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences, Whitby, Ontario, Canada, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Marty Fiati,

    Affiliation: Neuropsychiatry and Brain Sciences Programs, Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Anthony Feinstein

    Affiliations: Neuropsychiatry and Brain Sciences Programs, Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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  • Published: October 05, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047206

About the Authors

Omar Ghaffar, Marty Fiati, Anthony Feinstein
Neuropsychiatry and Brain Sciences Programs, Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Omar Ghaffar
Neuropsychiatry Services, Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences, Whitby, Ontario, Canada
Omar Ghaffar, Anthony Feinstein
Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Corresponding Author

Email: omar.ghaffar@utoronto.ca

Competing Interests

AF served on the scientific advisory boards of Merck/Serono and Avenir Pharmaceuticals; received travel funding from Merck/Serono, Teva Neuroscience, Bayer-Schering, and Biogen; served on the editorial boards of Multiple Sclerosis and the African Journal of Psychiatry; received publishing royalties from Cambridge University Press; received honoraria for speaking engagements or educational activities from Merck/Serono, Teva Neuroscience, Bayer-Schering, and Biogen; serves on the Medical Advisory Committee of the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada; and received research support from Teva Neuroscience, Merck-Serono, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the University of Toronto, and the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials, as detailed online in the guide for authors. MF has no competing interests to declare.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AF OG. Performed the experiments: OG MF. Analyzed the data: AF OG MF. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: OG. Wrote the paper: AF OG MF.