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Research Article

Succession in the Gut Microbiome following Antibiotic and Antibody Therapies for Clostridium difficile

  • Gregory L. Peterfreund,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Lee E. Vandivier,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Rohini Sinha,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Andre J. Marozsan,

    Affiliation: Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, New York, United States of America

    Current address: Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Cheshire, Connecticut, United States of America

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  • William C. Olson,

    Affiliation: Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, New York, United States of America

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  • Jun Zhu,

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Frederic D. Bushman mail

    bushman@mail.med.upenn.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: October 10, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046966

About the Authors

Gregory L. Peterfreund, Rohini Sinha, Jun Zhu, Frederic D. Bushman
Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Lee E. Vandivier
Department of Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Andre J. Marozsan, William C. Olson
Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, New York, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: bushman@mail.med.upenn.edu

Competing Interests

Authors AM and WO are or have been employees of Progenics, developer of the antitoxin antibody used in this study. Progenics has submitted patent applications for these antibodies. Progenics contracted Ricerca to carry out the animal experimentation on their behalf. The project was designed by the authors' lab and author AM from Progenics with input on feasibility and cost from Ricerca. All animal handling, infection, and sample generation were carried out by Ricerca as directed by AM and Progenics. There are no products in development or marketed products to declare. This does not alter the authors' adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: GLP AJM WCO JZ FDB. Performed the experiments: GLP WCO. Analyzed the data: GLP LEV RS. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RS AJM. Wrote the paper: GLP JZ FDB.