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Research Article

Accelerated Calvarial Healing in Mice Lacking Toll-Like Receptor 4

  • Dan Wang,

    Affiliations: Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Department of Stomatology, Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

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  • James R. Gilbert,

    Affiliation: Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • James J. Cray Jr.,

    Affiliation: Departments of Oral Biology and Orthodontics, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America

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  • Adam A. Kubala,

    Affiliation: Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Melissa A. Shaw,

    Affiliation: Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Timothy R. Billiar,

    Affiliation: Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Gregory M. Cooper mail

    greg.cooper@chp.edu

    Affiliations: Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America, Departments of Oral Biology and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

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  • Published: October 10, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046945

About the Authors

Dan Wang, James R. Gilbert, Adam A. Kubala, Melissa A. Shaw, Gregory M. Cooper
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Dan Wang
Department of Stomatology, Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China
James J. Cray Jr.
Departments of Oral Biology and Orthodontics, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, Georgia, United States of America
Timothy R. Billiar
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Gregory M. Cooper
Departments of Oral Biology and Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: greg.cooper@chp.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: DW TRB GMC. Performed the experiments: DW AAK MAS. Analyzed the data: DW JRG JJC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: DW AAK. Wrote the paper: DW.