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Research Article

Dogs (Canis familiaris) Evaluate Humans on the Basis of Direct Experiences Only

  • Marie Nitzschner mail,

    marie_nitzschner@eva.mpg.de

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Alicia P. Melis,

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Juliane Kaminski,

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Michael Tomasello

    Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

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  • Published: October 08, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046880

About the Authors

Marie Nitzschner, Alicia P. Melis, Juliane Kaminski, Michael Tomasello
Department of Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany

Corresponding Author

Email: marie_nitzschner@eva.mpg.de

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MN AM JK MT. Performed the experiments: MN. Analyzed the data: MN AM JK MT. Wrote the paper: MN AM JK MT.