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Research Article

Tough Adults, Frail Babies: An Analysis of Stress Sensitivity across Early Life-History Stages of Widely Introduced Marine Invertebrates

  • M. Carmen Pineda,

    Affiliation: Department of Animal Biology (Invertebrates), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Christopher D. McQuaid,

    Affiliation: Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa

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  • Xavier Turon,

    Affiliation: Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Spain

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  • Susanna López-Legentil,

    Affiliation: Department of Animal Biology (Invertebrates), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Víctor Ordóñez,

    Affiliation: Department of Genetics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

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  • Marc Rius mail

    mrius@ucdavis.edu

    Affiliation: Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

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  • Published: October 12, 2012
  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046672

About the Authors

M. Carmen Pineda, Susanna López-Legentil
Department of Animal Biology (Invertebrates), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Christopher D. McQuaid
Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
Xavier Turon
Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Spain
Víctor Ordóñez
Department of Genetics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Marc Rius
Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America

Corresponding Author

Email: mrius@ucdavis.edu

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: MCP CDM XT SL-L MR. Performed the experiments: MCP VO MR. Analyzed the data: MCP XT SL-L MR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: CDM XT SL-L MR. Wrote the paper: MCP CDM XT SL-L VO MR.